Islamic sexual jurisprudence concerns the Islamic laws of sexuality in Islam, as largely predicated on the Qur'an, the sayings of Muhammad (hadith) and the rulings of religious leaders' (fatwa) confining sexual activity to marital relationships between men and women.While most traditions discourage celibacy, all encourage strict chastity and modesty with regard to any relationships between genders, holding forth that their intimacy as perceived within Islam – encompassing a swath of life broader than sexual activity – is largely reserved for marriage.This sensitivity to gender difference and modesty outside of marriage can be seen in current prominent aspects of Islam, such as interpretations of Islamic dress and degrees of gender segregation.
Some hadith mentions circumcision in a list of practices known as fitra (acts considered to be of a refined person).Abu Hurayra, a companion of Muhammad, was quoted saying, So, despite its absence from the Qur'an, it has been a religious custom from the beginning of Islam.However, there are other hadiths which do not name circumcision as part of the characteristics of fitra "The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Ten are the acts according to fitra: clipping the mustache, letting the beard grow, using toothpicks, snuffing water in the nose, cutting the nails, washing the finger joints, plucking the hair under the armpits, shaving pubic hair and cleaning one's private parts with water.The narrator said: I have forgotten the tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth." Hence, the different hadiths do not correspond on whether circumcision is part of fitra or not.According to some traditions Muhammad was born without a foreskin (aposthetic), while others maintain that his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib circumcised him when he was seven days old.Amongst Ulema (Muslim legal scholars), there are differing opinions about the compulsion of circumcision in Sharia (Islamic law).Imams Abū Ḥanīfa, founder of the Hanafi school of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and Malik ibn Anas, maintain that circumcision is a Sunnah Mu'akkadah—not obligatory but highly recommended.The Shafi`i and Hanbali schools see it as binding on all Muslims.Islamic sources do not fix a particular time for circumcision. A majority of Ulema however take the view that parents should get their child circumcised before the age of ten.) refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty, and has full responsibility under Islamic law.For example, in issues pertaining to marriage, baligh is related to the Arabic legal expression, hatta tutiqa'l-rijal, which means that a wedding may not take place until the girl is physically fit to engage in sexual intercourse.In comparison, baligh or balaghat concerns the reaching of sexual maturity which becomes manifest by the menses.