This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country other than India, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Indian states of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.
It is bordered by the Pakistan provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.
The administration of the Sikh Empire was based out of Lahore, until its defeat by the British.Punjab was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan.The province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition.The word Punjab was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (water), thus meaning the (land of) five rivers, similar in meaning to the Greek name for the region.The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and eventually into the Arabian Sea.Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab province.Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks and Afghans.The northwestern part of South Asia, including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great, and Genghis Khan.Soanian culture first flourished in the soan valley of northern Punjab.Tools up to two million years old have been recovered in potohar plateau.In the Soan River, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface.